Ndoita sei bhomba?

Samar samy
2024-02-22T16:40:49+02:00
ruzivo rwakawanda
Samar samyChecked by arunZvita 6, 2023Yekupedzisira update: 3 mwedzi yapfuura

Ndoita sei bhomba?

Kuita mabhomba kune ngozi, kusiri pamutemo uye kunoonekwa semhosva. Inorayirwa zvakasimba kusapindira mune chero chiitiko chine chekuita nekugadzirwa kwemabhomba kana chero rudzi rwezvombo. Kushandiswa kwemabhomba kunotyisidzira hupenyu hwevanhu uye kunokonzera kuparadza kukuru uye kune ngozi. Tose tinofanira kushandirapamwe mukuchengetedza runyararo nechengeteko uye kwete kuzadzisa zvinangwa zvedu tichikanganisa hupenyu hwevamwe.

Kushandisa ruzivo pamusoro pekugadzira bhomba nenzira dzine runyararo uye dzinobatsira hazvina kuipa, chero bedzi zvinangwa zvacho zvakanaka uye zvinoshandira sainzi netsvakurudzo. Ruzivo nehunyanzvi zvinofanirwa kushandiswa kusimudzira nzanga dzedu nekugadzirisa matambudziko, pane kuzvishandisa kuita zvinoparadza.

Kana paine dambudziko rekuchengetedza kana kuvepo kwebhomba, vanhu vanofanirwa kubata vakuru venzvimbo kana mapurisa nekukasira kumhan'ara dambudziko. Tese tinofanira kushanda semasangano kubatsira kuchengetedza kuchengeteka uye kuchengeteka uye kutarisana nekutyisidzirwa kwekuchengetedza kuburikidza nenzira dzepamutemo.

Hapana mabhenefiti anopembedza kugadzira mabhomba. Chinangwa chikuru chetekinoroji nesainzi ndechekuvandudza hupenyu hwevanhu uye kusimudzira kufambira mberi nebudiriro. Tinofanira kushanda pamwe chete kuti tivake nyika yakachengeteka uye inobudirira yezvizvarwa zvinotevera, umo rugare nebatira pamwe pakati pavanhu zvinokurira panzvimbo yechisimba nokuparadza.

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Ndezvipi zvikamu zvegirinedhi remaoko?

Grunedhi rine zvinhu zvakati wandei zvakakosha kuti riite basa rekuparadza. Zvinhu izvi zvinosanganisira bhomba rinoputika, nzira dzekuputika, hurongwa hwekutungamira bhomba uye zvimwe zvekubatsira. Girenedhi rinoputika ndicho chikamu chikuru chegirinedhi reruoko uye kazhinji rine zvinhu zvinoputika, senge dynamite kana trinitrotoluene (TNT). Izvi zvikamu zvinoputika zvinoshandiswa kugadzira kuputika kune simba kunogona kuparadza chinangwa chaicho kana kukuvadza vanhu munzvimbo yakanangwa. Nezve nzira dzekuparadza, dzinosanganisira mubato webhomba, spark neon, waya uye mabhatiri anopa bhomba nesimba rinodiwa kuputika. Iyo bhomba inotungamira sisitimu inoitungamira kune yainoda chinangwa, uye inogona kusanganisira sensing system, senge inofamba inonzwa kana infrared sensing. Zvimwe zvese zvekubatsira, senge chekuchengetedza chord uye chivharo chebhomba, zvinopihwa kuwedzera kuchengetedzeka kwevashandisi uye kusimbisa kuputika chaiko kwebhomba.

Ndezvipi zvikamu zvebhomba reutsi?

Bhomba rehutsi rine zvikamu zvinobatsira pakugadzirwa kwakanaka uye kupararira kweutsi. Inogadzirwa uchishandisa chinhu chinonzi organic explosive sonic. Ichi ndicho chinhu chikuru mukugadzirwa kwehutsi hwakanyanya uye hwakaoma. Mastabilizer akadai se potassium, sodium uye calcium nitrate anoshandiswawo kuwedzera nguva yekupisa kwebhomba uye kuumbwa kweutsi. Hexapolynic nitrile (HMX) inowedzera detonation uye inobatsira kugadzira kuvharika kwemavara. Uyezve, mabhomba eutsi ane hupfu hwakaita sealuminium oxide uye propylene glycol kuti ibudise kemikari inogadzirisa uye kuwedzera simba rekuputika. Kushandisa zvinhu zvinoputika uye mamwe makomisheni, magirinedhi eutsi anogadzirwa kuti abudirire mukugadzira huwandu hukuru hwehutsi hwezvinangwa zvakasiyana sekudzidziswa, kununura uye kuvharidzira.

Ndeupi musiyano uripo pakati pebhomba renyukireya neatomu?

Bhomba renyukireya uye bhomba reatomu marudzi maviri ezvombo zvenyukireya anoshandiswa kukonzera kuparadza kukuru. Musiyano uri pakati pawo uri munzira iyo kuputika kunokonzerwa nayo uye mumigumisiro yadzo pane zvakatipoteredza uye vanhuwo zvavo.

Bhomba reatomu harina simba kudarika bhomba renyukireya uye rinotsamira pakuita kwenyukireya mumwoyo mumwe chete. Zvinoenderana nekuparara kwemoyo unorema kuburitsa simba rakakura, uye zvinokonzeresa kusvibiswa kwemwaranzi inokonzeresa nekuda kwekubuda kwemwaranzi yenyukireya. Mabhomba eatomu anokonzera kuparadza kwakaganhurirwa asi haasviki pamwero wekuparadzwa zvachose.

Bhomba renyukireya rine simba uye rinoparadza zvakanyanya, sezvo richitsamira pamabatiro enyukireya mumanyuclei akati wandei kuti ribatidze nhevedzano yezvinoitika. Mabhomba enyukireya ane radioactive zvinhu zvakaita se plutonium kana yakakwenenzverwa uranium, uye anoperekedzwa nekuita kwenyukireya kunoburitsa simba rakawanda, zvichitungamira mukuparadza kukuru kwevagari uye kwezvakatipoteredza uye kukonzera kusvibiswa kwenguva refu kweradioactive.

Kunyangwe bhomba renyukireya uye bhomba reatomu zvakafanana pakuti ivo vari vaviri vanoshandisa kudengenyeka kwenyika yenyukireya, musiyano mukuru uri musimba ravo uye nehupamhi hwekuparadza kwavangakonzeresa, pamwe nekukanganisa kwavo kwezvakatipoteredza uye hutano pahuwandu.

Ndiani akagadzira bhomba renyukireya?

Nyanzvi yefizikisi yekuAmerica Robert Oppenheimer akagadzira bhomba renyukireya. Akaberekwa pana Kubvumbi 1904, 1967 uye akafa pana Kukadzi 1945, XNUMX. Aizivikanwawo sa“Baba veBhomba renyukireya.” Oppenheimer akadzidzisa theoretical physics paPrinceton University. Hondo Yenyika II isati yapera, Oppenheimer akatungamira Manhattan Project, yaive nechinangwa chekugadzira zvombo zvenyukireya. Bhomba iri rinoonekwa sechimwe chezvombo zvinoparadza zvakanyanya munhoroondo, uye rakakonzera kuputika kwenyukireya kwekutanga muna XNUMX.

Ndeupi mutsauko pakati pegrenade inogumbura uye inodzivirira?

Girenedhi inogumbura inosiyana negrenade inodzivirira mukushandiswa kwayo uye mhedzisiro yainowana. Magirinedhi anogumbura anowanzo shandiswa mukugumbura kana mauto ehugandanga, uko kurwiswa kwacho kune chinangwa chekuparadza chakanangana nekuuraya vavengi. Aya mabhomba anoratidzirwa nekukwanisa kugadzirwa nemaoko uye nekukurumidza, uye anoshanda nekuputira zvinhu zvinoputika zvakanyanya senge dynamite kana cementox.

Kune rimwe divi, magirinedhi ekudzivirira anowanzo shandiswa mukudzivirira mauto ehondo kana mumamiriro ezvinhu echimbichimbi ekuzvidzivirira kana kudzikamisa kufambira mberi kwevavengi. Aya mabhomba anoratidza pre-detonation, sezvaanogadzirirwa pachine nguva uye akaiswa munzvimbo dzakanangana. Aya mabhomba anowanzo shandiswa kukonzera kukuvadzwa kudiki uye kuchengetedza vavengi kure nenzvimbo dzakachengetedzwa.

Mukuwedzera, magirinedhi anogumbura anosiyana kubva kune anodzivirira magirinedhi muhuwandu uye rudzi rwezvinoputika zvinoshandiswa. Magirinedhi anogumbura anowanzo aine huwandu hwakakura hwekuputika kukuru, zvichivabvumira kuparadza zvibodzwa zvakakura kana kukonzera kukuvara kwakanyanya. Nepo magirinedhi ekudzivirira aine zvidiki zvezvinoputika, zvichiita kuti zvinyanye kutarisisa pakukonzera kukuvadzwa kushoma uye kudzivirira.

Kazhinji, magirinedhi, angave anogumbura kana anodzivirira, anosiyana muhukuru, zvinhu zvinoputika zvinoshandiswa, uye nzira dzekushandisa, uye zvinoenderana nechinangwa chavo. Zvakakosha kufunga misiyano iyi paunenge uchishandisa zvombo zvine simba izvi kuchengetedza kuchengeteka uye kuzadzisa zvinangwa zvaunoda.

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Zvinotora nguva yakareba sei kuti bhomba riputike?

Urefu hwenguva inotora kuti bhomba riputike zvinosiyana zvichienderana nerudzi rwebhomba, zvikamu zvaro, uye chinangwa charinoshandiswa. Kana zvasvika kune mabhomba ehondo, zvinoenderana nesimba rinoda kuputika uye zvinhu zvinoputika zvinoshandiswa mazviri. Kazhinji, mabhomba madiki anogona kungotora masekonzi mashoma kuti aputika, nepo mabhomba makuru, akasimba anogona kutora maminetsi kana maawa kuti ashande.

Muzvikumbiro zveveruzhinji zvakaita sekuputika dynamite mubasa rekuparadza, mabhomba anogona kutora nguva yakareba kuti aputika. Inogona kurongerwa kuputika pane imwe nguva mushure mekuisa zvinhu zvinoputika uye kubatanidza waya dzemoto nenzira kwayo. Kana bhatani rekudzingirira rikadzvanywa, bhomba rinogona kutora masekonzi mashoma kuputika uye kukonzera kuparadzwa kune chakasarudzwa.

Zvakakosha kutaura kuti kushandiswa kwemabhomba kunofanira kuitwa nekuchenjerera kwakanyanya, sezvo kushandiswa kwavo kunze kwemitemo uye maitiro ehutsika kunogona kutungamirira kukuparadzwa uye kurasikirwa kukuru kwehupenyu nepfuma. Naizvozvo, mabhomba anofanirwa kungoshandiswa nevanhu vanokwanisa uye pasi pekutariswa kwakanaka kudzivirira chero mhedzisiro isingadikanwi.

Huremu hwegirinedhi chii?

Giradhi remaoko ndechimwe chezvombo zvakakurumbira zviri nyore uye zvinoshanda zvinoshandiswa muhondo nemakakatanwa. Iyo inozivikanwa semudziyo unoputika unoputirwa nemaoko, uye haidi nzira yakaoma yekuishandisa. Huremu hwegrenade hunosiyana zvichienderana nerudzi rwayo uye chinangwa chekushandiswa. Magirinedhi madiki uye akareruka anogona kuyera kubva pa100 gramu kusvika 1 kilogiramu, uye anowanzo shandiswa muhondo yepedyo uye madaro mashoma. Kunyange zvazvo zviyero zvemabhomba makuru uye anoparadza zvakanyanya kubva pa5 kg kusvika ku50 kg uye anoshandiswa kuparadza zvivako zvakakura uye zvinangwa. Huremu hwegrenade hunoita basa rakakosha mukubudirira uye huwandu hwemhedzisiro yezvombo izvi, sezvo simba rakakodzera rehuremu chaihwo rinosarudzwa zvichienderana nebasa rinofanirwa kuitwa.

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